This page provides an overview of DNS support by Kubernetes.
Kubernetes DNS schedules a DNS Pod and Service on the cluster, and configures the kubelets to tell individual containers to use the DNS Service’s IP to resolve DNS names.
Every Service defined in the cluster (including the DNS server itself) is assigned a DNS name. By default, a client Pod’s DNS search list will include the Pod’s own namespace and the cluster’s default domain. This is best illustrated by example:
Assume a Service named
foo in the Kubernetes namespace
bar. A Pod running
bar can look up this service by simply doing a DNS query for
foo. A Pod running in namespace
quux can look up this service by doing a
DNS query for
The following sections detail the supported record types and layout that is supported. Any other layout or names or queries that happen to work are considered implementation details and are subject to change without warning. For more up-to-date specification, see Kubernetes DNS-Based Service Discovery.
“Normal” (not headless) Services are assigned a DNS A record for a name of the
my-svc.my-namespace.svc.cluster.local. This resolves to the cluster IP
of the Service.
“Headless” (without a cluster IP) Services are also assigned a DNS A record for
a name of the form
my-svc.my-namespace.svc.cluster.local. Unlike normal
Services, this resolves to the set of IPs of the pods selected by the Service.
Clients are expected to consume the set or else use standard round-robin
selection from the set.
SRV Records are created for named ports that are part of normal or Headless
For each named port, the SRV record would have the form
For a regular service, this resolves to the port number and the domain name:
For a headless service, this resolves to multiple answers, one for each pod
that is backing the service, and contains the port number and the domain name of the pod
of the form
When enabled, pods are assigned a DNS A record in the form of
For example, a pod with IP
126.96.36.199 in the namespace
default with a DNS name
cluster.local would have an entry:
Currently when a pod is created, its hostname is the Pod’s
The Pod spec has an optional
hostname field, which can be used to specify the
Pod’s hostname. When specified, it takes precedence over the Pod’s name to be
the hostname of the pod. For example, given a Pod with
hostname set to
my-host”, the Pod will have its hostname set to “
The Pod spec also has an optional
subdomain field which can be used to specify
its subdomain. For example, a Pod with
hostname set to “
set to “
bar”, in namespace “
my-namespace”, will have the fully qualified
domain name (FQDN) “
apiVersion: v1 kind: Service metadata: name: default-subdomain spec: selector: name: busybox clusterIP: None ports: - name: foo # Actually, no port is needed. port: 1234 targetPort: 1234 --- apiVersion: v1 kind: Pod metadata: name: busybox1 labels: name: busybox spec: hostname: busybox-1 subdomain: default-subdomain containers: - image: busybox:1.28 command: - sleep - "3600" name: busybox --- apiVersion: v1 kind: Pod metadata: name: busybox2 labels: name: busybox spec: hostname: busybox-2 subdomain: default-subdomain containers: - image: busybox:1.28 command: - sleep - "3600" name: busybox
If there exists a headless service in the same namespace as the pod and with
the same name as the subdomain, the cluster’s KubeDNS Server also returns an A
record for the Pod’s fully qualified hostname.
For example, given a Pod with the hostname set to “
busybox-1” and the subdomain set to
default-subdomain”, and a headless Service named “
the same namespace, the pod will see its own FQDN as
busybox-1.default-subdomain.my-namespace.svc.cluster.local”. DNS serves an
A record at that name, pointing to the Pod’s IP. Both pods “
busybox2” can have their distinct A records.
The Endpoints object can specify the
hostname for any endpoint addresses,
along with its IP.
Note: Because A records are not created for Pod names,
hostnameis required for the Pod’s A record to be created. A Pod with no
subdomainonly will only create the A record for the headless service (
default-subdomain.my-namespace.svc.cluster.local), pointing to the Pod’s IP address.
DNS policies can be set on a per-pod basis. Currently Kubernetes supports the
following pod-specific DNS policies. These policies are specified in the
dnsPolicy field of a Pod Spec.
Default“: The Pod inherits the name resolution configuration from the node that the pods run on. See related discussion for more details.
ClusterFirst“: Any DNS query that does not match the configured cluster domain suffix, such as “
www.kubernetes.io”, is forwarded to the upstream nameserver inherited from the node. Cluster administrators may have extra stub-domain and upstream DNS servers configured. See related discussion for details on how DNS queries are handled in those cases.
ClusterFirstWithHostNet“: For Pods running with hostNetwork, you should explicitly set its DNS policy “
None“: A new option value introduced in Kubernetes v1.9 (Beta in v1.10). It allows a Pod to ignore DNS settings from the Kubernetes environment. All DNS settings are supposed to be provided using the
dnsConfigfield in the Pod Spec. See DNS config subsection below.
Note: “Default” is not the default DNS policy. If
dnsPolicyis not explicitly specified, then “ClusterFirst” is used.
The example below shows a Pod with its DNS policy set to
ClusterFirstWithHostNet” because it has
hostNetwork set to
apiVersion: v1 kind: Pod metadata: name: busybox namespace: default spec: containers: - image: busybox:1.28 command: - sleep - "3600" imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent name: busybox restartPolicy: Always hostNetwork: true dnsPolicy: ClusterFirstWithHostNet
Kubernetes v1.9 introduces an Alpha feature (Beta in v1.10) that allows users more
control on the DNS settings for a Pod. This feature is enabled by default in v1.10.
To enable this feature in v1.9, the cluster administrator
needs to enable the
CustomPodDNS feature gate on the apiserver and the kubelet,
for example, “
When the feature gate is enabled, users can set the
dnsPolicy field of a Pod
None” and they can add a new field
dnsConfig to a Pod Spec.
dnsConfig field is optional and it can work with any
However, when a Pod’s
dnsPolicy is set to “
dnsConfig field has
to be specified.
Below are the properties a user can specify in the
nameservers: a list of IP addresses that will be used as DNS servers for the Pod. There can be at most 3 IP addresses specified. When the Pod’s
dnsPolicyis set to “
None”, the list must contain at least one IP address, otherwise this property is optional. The servers listed will be combined to the base nameservers generated from the specified DNS policy with duplicate addresses removed.
searches: a list of DNS search domains for hostname lookup in the Pod. This property is optional. When specified, the provided list will be merged into the base search domain names generated from the chosen DNS policy. Duplicate domain names are removed. Kubernetes allows for at most 6 search domains.
options: an optional list of objects where each object may have a
nameproperty (required) and a
valueproperty (optional). The contents in this property will be merged to the options generated from the specified DNS policy. Duplicate entries are removed.
The following is an example Pod with custom DNS settings:
When the Pod above is created, the container
test gets the following contents
nameserver 188.8.131.52 search ns1.svc.cluster.local my.dns.search.suffix options ndots:2 edns0
For IPv6 setup, search path and name server should be setup like this:
$ kubectl exec -it dns-example -- cat /etc/resolv.conf nameserver fd00:79:30::a search default.svc.cluster.local svc.cluster.local cluster.local options ndots:5
For guidance on administering DNS configurations, check Configure DNS Service
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